Every industry has its' industry specific lingo, and the world of computers is no different. Infact, many abbreviations and acronyms that are commonly used in conversation have originated from computer talk, or a technologically related field. If you're not one of those people who's computer is symbolically (or sometimes physically) attached to your person, then all the talk can seem confusing. Nothing to worry about however, as we hope to clear the air and reveal the secrets behind tech talk, and how you will be able to not only understand it, but even implement it into your own brain database!
1. Operating System:
An operating system (OS) is software, consisting of programs and data, that runs on computers, manages computer hardware resources, and provides common services for execution of various application software.
For hardware functions such as input and output and memory allocation, the operating system acts as an intermediary between application programs and the computer hardware, although the application code is usually executed directly by the hardware and will frequently call the OS or be interrupted by it. Operating systems are found on almost any device that contains a computer—from cellular phones and video game consoles to supercomputers and web servers.
A router is a device that forwards data packets across computer networks. Routers perform the data "traffic directing" functions on the Internet. A router is a microprocessor-controlled device that is connected to two or more data lines from different networks. When a data packet comes in on one of the lines, the router reads the address information in the packet to determine its ultimate destination. Then, using information in its routing table, it directs the packet to the next network on its journey. A data packet is typically passed from router to router through the networks of the Internet until it gets to its destination computer. Routers also perform other tasks such as translating the data transmission protocol of the packet to the appropriate protocol of the next network, and preventing unauthorized access to a network by the use of a firewall.
The most familiar type of routers are home and small office routers that simply pass data, such as web pages and email, between the home computers and the owner's cable or DSL modem, which connects to the Internet (ISP). However more sophisticated routers range from enterprise routers, which connect large business or ISP networks up to the powerful core routers that forward data at high speed along the optical fiber lines of the Internet backbone.
3. Peripheral Device
A peripheral is a device attached to a host computer, but not part of it, and is more or less dependent on the host. It expands the host's capabilities, but does not form part of the core computer architecture.
4. Local Area Network (LAN)
A local area network (LAN) is a computer network that connects computers and devices in a limited geographical area such as home, school, computer laboratory or office building. The defining characteristics of LANs, in contrast to wide area networks (WANs), include their usually higher data-transfer rates, smaller geographic area, and lack of a need for leased telecommunication lines.
These are just a few of the many terms used in modern day computer conversation. Within each term are links to many other terms that I would encourage anyone to be keen to, as the emergence of technology as a standard for all facilities of living is growing rapidly. I hope these terms also help you familiarize yourself with your own computer setup as well, and serve as an educational piece for you, your home, or office.